The full name of the battery is State of Charge, also known as the residual power. It represents the ratio of the remaining capacity of the lithium batteries after being used for a period of time or for a long time to the capacity of the full charging state, which is often expressed as a percentage. It is generally expressed in hexadecimal by one byte, that is, two, which means that the remaining power is 0%~100%. When SOC = 0, the battery is fully discharged, and when SOC = 1, it means that the battery is fully charged.
SOC algorithm has always been one of the key technologies for the development and application of lithium-ion battery management systems (BMS). The higher the estimation accuracy of SOC, the higher the range of electric vehicles with the same capacity for batteries. High-precision SOC estimation can maximize the efficiency of lithium-ion batteries.
At present, the most commonly used calculation methods are the time integration method and the open circuit voltage calibration method. By establishing a lithium-ion battery model and a large number of data collection, the actual data are compared with the calculation data. This is also the technical secret of each company. It takes a large amount of data to accumulate for a long time, and it is also the part with the highest technical content of Tesla. Tesla has applied for more than 100 core patents in BMS-related fields such as lithium-ion battery cooling, safety, and charge balance.
The estimation of the charge state (SOC) of lithium-ion batteries is a basis for the study of battery applications. The deep charging and discharge of lithium-ion batteries in use will greatly reduce their service life. Accurate SOC estimation can prevent this situation. An accurate display of residual power can also help the car control system calculate and drive. Mileage, drivers can also better plan their driving routes.
How to charge lithium-ion batteries?
- Prevent charging at excessive temperatures. If the operating temperature is higher than the specified, that is, the charging environment is more than 35°C, the battery’s power will continue to decrease, that is, the battery’s power supply time will not be as long as usual.
- Charging according to the standard time and procedure; all practices that pursue 12 hours of ultra-long charging and using single-cell lithium-ion batteries to automatically shut down are wrong.
- Keeping lithium-ion batteries charged and discharged moderately can extend the battery life. Maintaining the lithium-ion battery power at 10% to 90% is conducive to protecting the battery. When charging the battery of digital products such as mobile phones and laptops, there is no need to reach the maximum value.
- Lithium-ion battery charging temperature range: 0~45 degrees Celsius, lithium-ion battery discharge temperature range: 10~+60 degrees Celsius.
- Due to the characteristics of the lithium-ion battery itself, it has almost no memory effect. Therefore, the new lithium-ion battery in the user’s mobile phone should not be a special method and device during the activation process. Charging is best charged according to standard time and method, especially not to charge for more than 12 hours.
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